Stepping up the combat towards COVID-19, India’s Ministry of Health & Family Welfare recently declared sector-wise category of districts as hotspots (red area) and non-hotspots (green region), based on reported cases.

Districts without a said instance are categorized as green. A hotspot district can circulate to the green region if no new case is mentioned for 28 days.

States are advised to perceive hotspots primarily based on the doubling rate of confirmed cases. This identity of hotspots, the Ministry says, will be completed on a weekly foundation, if no longer earlier. Strict containment measures are to be carried out in those hotspot areas.


Over to the east of India lies Bangladesh. It, too, became pretty unscathed in the course of the 2020 waves of the pandemic, however, this has caused humans to turn into complacent approximately the virus and now not adhering to social distancing measures. March and April saw an ensuing upward push in COVID instances in Bangladesh (population, 163 million) which precipitated the government to impose new regulations. On April 19, Bangladesh recorded its highest each day dying rate at 112 deaths. A full lockdown changed into carried out on April 14.

Since instances started out to upward push, the authorities have imposed restrictions following the lockdown, along with a ban on public gatherings in regions wherein infection charges are excessive and a journey ban to and from countries the authorities consider an excessive threat. Planned elections for a few areas have additionally been postponed. Vaccinations are underway however progressing slowly, with only 2. Eighty-one million having received both doses of the vaccine and approximately eight million doses given in general. The key for Bangladesh is to hope that India’s issues do no longer spill over the border and wreak havoc on the healthcare gadget. The government and fitness officers must now work difficult to convince the population that this virus must be taken critically and that restrictions want to be adhered to.


Two nationwide COVID-19 antibody seroprevalence research from Brazil displays that many cities along the Amazon had been hit the toughest at the start of the epidemic in May and June, at the side of poorer and Indigenous groups.

“Existing seroprevalence research in Brazil has focused on the extra evolved parts of us of a, represented with the aid of the southern and southeastern areas. So it’s miles crucial that we have extra accurate information at the national situation.”

The researchers did two household surveys in the maximum populous cities in all 133 so-known as ‘mesoregions’ – regional hubs used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics to record demographic and socioeconomic information across Brazil, overlaying 26 states and the Federal District.

The studies included greater than 25000 participants inside the length May 14-21 and over 32000 in June four-7. At each place, the researchers randomly selected families and randomly decided on one man or woman from all household contributors to check for COVID-19 antibodies.

Participants additionally responded short questionnaires on sociodemographic statistics (intercourse, age, training, ethnicity, household size, and household property) and compliance with bodily distancing measures.

 Most amazing locating changed into the cluster of high prevalence in eleven cities alongside the Amazon River, with ranges that were the various highest ever said in population-based totally studies. This finding of high occurrence in a tropical area contradicts commonplace understanding that continents such as Africa is probably included in opposition to COVID-19 because of high ambient temperature.”

The authors believe the high rates of seroprevalence in Indigenous Brazilians are due to a cluster of things, geographical area, family length (generally overcrowded residing conditions), and poverty. Mortality charges for most clinical conditions are better in Indigenous Brazilians, and this population turned into largely left at the back of throughout Brazil’s speedy financial and fitness advances that commenced in the Nineteen Nineties.

Overall, the authors say: “Our consequences should be interpreted in phrases of the debatable control of the pandemic by using the national government. Testing become constrained to individuals with intense signs throughout the early degrees of the pandemic and get in touch with tracing turned into simply non-existent. Two consecutive fitness ministers have been either dismissed or resigned in less than 1 month because of their opposition to the president’s stance concerning bodily distancing and the usage of hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19, and seeing that May 15, the united states has not had a health minister… The controversial coping with of the epidemic by using the federal government is probable to have contributed to the speedy unfold of COVID-19 in the united states’s most susceptible populations.”

While to start with many kingdom governors have been supportive of social distancing measures and a few form of lockdown, the us of a has now progressively reopened, despite the persisting excessive incidence of latest instances and deaths.

The authors conclude: “The effect of relaxing those measures continues to be too early to assess, however in addition waves of serological surveys will allow monitoring of the progression of the pandemic and help check the effectiveness of coverage modifications.”

The authors have additionally executed extra seroprevalence surveys* since the mentioned on this paper, with an average prevalence of 3.Eight% within the 1/3 look at from June 21-24, observed through a pointy decline to at least one.4% within the ultimate survey round that turned into achieved from August 27-30, after a c programming language of 66 days.

This amazed the researchers, due to the fact that they have been looking ahead to cumulative seroprevalence to keep rising (seroprevalence measures the proportion of people who have had the infection in some unspecified time in the future, no longer the proportion who’re presently inflamed).

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